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Garrett Infinium ls land and sea LS Metal Detector’s Key Features pulse induction PI P.I.

Key Features of Infinium LS land and sea :Audio Threshold, Adjustable: adjust to user’s preference

  • Circuit type: Advanced Pulse Induction technology for automaticcancellation of salt/ground mineralization
  • User-adjustable Discrimination with Quick Iron Check
  • User-adjustable Frequency: adjust to reduce interference
  • Automatic Ground Track with 3 settings:
    • Slow—Use over slowly changing ground mineralization.
    • Lock—Locks ground track setting; use for most ground conditionsand offers maximum depth.
    • Fast—Use over extreme or quickly changing ground mineralization.
  • Volume control: on land headphones (included)
  • Hip Mount Battery Pack: reduces detector weight for long searches
  • Salt Elimination Aid: eliminate interference of salt mineralization at beach
  • Battery Life: Alkaline (included), 10-15 hours. Battery recharger for AC andautomobile included. Rechargeable (included), 7-10 hours.

Search Modes :

  • Motion All Metal with adjustable PI discrimination

Infinium LS Metal Detector

Product No. 1152070

Specifications   :

Multiple Frequency Technology 96 frequencies
Circuit Type Advanced Pulse Induction
Discrimination Full Range (PI)
Search Modes Motion, All Metal Deepseekingwith Adjustable PI discrimination
Detection Frequency 730 pulses per second, adjustable
Submersion Depth 200 feet (65m); (underwaterheadphones required)
Standard Searchcoil 10″x14″ PROformance™ DD
Standard Land Headphones Included; weight 16 oz. (.45 kgs.)
Length (Adjustable) 28″ to 52″ (.71m – 1.32m)
Total Weight 5.5 lbs. (2.5 kgs.) stem-mounted,3.8 lbs. (1.72 kgs.) hip-mounted
Control Housing 31 oz. (.88 kgs.)
Detector Buoyancy Near neutral
Batteries 8 AA (included); rechargeables included
Warranty 2 Year, Limited Parts/Labor

Infinium LS is the best salt water PULSE INDUCTION metal detector

Call for the best price always at 1 800 301 6151

Garrett Metal Detectors

 

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Before buying a metal detector you must read this article learn the best terms

 

Air Test:     A test performed by moving various sized metal samples beneath the metal detector searchcoil to check the detector’s features and target response. This test is not an accurate indicator of ground depth penetration capability.

Alkaline: A type of battery able to sustain longer periods of current drain with greater storage life when compared to standard carbon-zinc type

All Metal: Any operating mode or control setting which allows total acceptance of any type of metal targets. It is sually associated with the Ground Balance mode

Audio ID: See Tone ID

Audio Response: See Target Response

Auto Tune: Circuitry which continuously retunes the detector’s threshold to the initial manually tuned audio level. The retuning rate following target rejection or drift can be preset or variable

Back Reading: A false signal, when operating in the discriminate mode, caused by a rejected target coming within one inch of or contacting the searchcoil bottom

Bench Test: An air test to determine at what approximate discriminate settings various metal samples are rejected or accepted. The test is conducted in a non- metallic area.

Black Sand: One of the most extreme components of nonconductive, negative ground minerals. Also called magnetite (Fe304) or magnetic iron oxide.

Body Mount: A configuration whereby the control housing is separated from the control shaft and fastened to the operator’s body lessening arm fatigue and expanding usability for shallow water hunting. Also known as hip mount.

Cache: Any intentionally buried or secret hoard of valuables.

Carbon-Zinc: The most common standard dry cell battery type.

Coil: See Searchcoil.

Coin Depth Indicator: A visual indicator used in conjunction with calibrated circuitry to indicate depth of buried coins in inches or millimeters.

Concentric: A searchcoil configuration using one or more transmit and one receive windings having unequal diameters aligned on a common center; most recently arranged on the same plane and called coplanar concentric.

Conductive Salts: One of the major mineral types which make up the positive ground matrix. Wet,ocean-salt sand produces a positive rise or metallic type response on an air tuned threshold

Conductivity: The measure of a metal targets ability to allow eddy current generation on its surface.

Control Housing: A metal or plastic box which holds circuit boards, indicators, meter, controls and power supply.

Convertible/Combination: A metal detector configuration allowing versatility in operator handling, i.e.,  hand held to body mount.

Coplanar: Any searchcoil configuration in which transmit & receive windings occupy the same level or plane.

Crystal Controlled Oscillator: A transmit oscillator  employing a crystal to maintain stable output frequency.

Depth Penetration: The greatest measure of  metal detector’s ability to transmit an electromagnetic field into the soil matrix and produce a target signal.

Detection Pattern: The densest or strongest region of the searchcoil’s electromagnetic field where detection occurs. Its shape is balloon and changes in size directly proportional to target surface area.

Detuning: Adjusting the audio threshold into the null or less sensitivity tuning zone. Also a method of narrowing a target signal width manually for precise pinpointing. This is accomplished by retuning to audio threshold over the target response area.

DISC: See Discrimination

Discrimination: Adjustable circuitry which ignores or nulls audio responses from a specific conductivity range allowing positive responses to be heard from metals higher in conductivity above the discriminate control setting. Designed primarily to eliminate audio response from trash metals. See also Motion Discriminator.

Double Blip: A signal characteristic common to elongated ferrous targets such as nails or coins lying close to the surface detected in the All Metal no-motion mode

Double D or 2 D : See WideScan.

Drift: A loss of threshold tuning stability caused by temperature change, battery condition, ground mineral content or detector design

Eddy Currents: Small circulating currents produced on the surface of metal by the transmitted electromagnetic field. These currents then produce a secondary electromagnetic field which is then detected by the search coil receiver windings resulting in inductive imbalance between the windings.

Electromagnetic Field: An invisible force extending from top and bottom of the searchcoil created by the flow of alternating oscillator frequency current around the transmit winding. See also Detection Pattern

Electronic Pinpointing : An automated detuning feature which narrows signal response for the purpose of target pinpointing

Elliptical Coil: A searchcoil with an  ellipse shape. This coil can be either concentric or widescan type.

Faint Signal: A sound characteristic of targets that are sometimes deeply buried or very small in size.

False Signal: An erroneous signal created by over shoot, ground voids or highly mineralized hot rocks. See also BackReading.

Faraday-Shield: A metal foil wrapping of the searchcoil windings or  metallically painted searchcoil housing interior for the purpose of eliminating electrostatic interference caused by wet vegetation

Ferrous: Descriptive of any iron or iron bearing material.

Ferrous Oxide: An oxidized particle of iron which generally becomes nonconductive and makes up the natural negative ground mineral matrix. Hematite, which is also iron oxide (Fe203 ) will respond as positive or metallic. See also Black Sand

Frequency: The number of complete alternating current cycles produced by the transmit oscillator per second. Measured in cycles per second.  VLF Very Low Frequency = 3 to 30 kHz; LF Low Frequency = 30 to 300 kHz;MF Medium Frequency = 300 to 3000 kHz; HF High Frequency = 3 to 30 MHz

Frequency Shift: A feature which suppresses the audio interference (cross-talk) between two detectors using identical transmit frequencies in close proximity.

Ground Balance:  A state of operation using specialized circuitry to ignore the masking effect that iron ground minerals have over metal targets.

Ground Balance – Factory Preset: A feature which eliminates the manual ground balance control and its adjustment from the operator’s setup procedure. This adjustment is performed internally by the factory to optimize operation over an average range of nonconductive soils.

Ground Balance – Manual Adjusted: A feature requiring a manual control adjustment procedure to neutralize the effects of negative minerals in the search matrix.

Ground Balance – Self Adjusting: A feature which senses change in ground mineral content and continuously readjusts the ground balance while in operation. Sometimes called Ground Tracking or Automatic Ground Balance

Ground Filter: Complex circuitry found in motion-type detectors which separates mineral signal from the metal signal allowing it to be further processed by the discrimination circuitry

Hand Held: A metal detector configuration whereby the operator holds a shaft or handle which supports the searchcoil and control housing. Also called pole mount

Head: See Searchcoil.

Hz or Hertz: Cycles per second. See also Frequency.

Hip Mount: See BodyMount

Hot Rock: A rock which contains a higher concentration of nonconductive ground minerals than the surrounding matrix to which the detector is balanced. A metallic (positive) response will be heard in the motion and non-motion modes and a null or negative drop in threshold is heard in the all-metal, ground balance mode over these rocks

Isolator: A nonmetal stem which attaches the searchcoil to the control shaft eliminating metallic interference in the detection pattern. On some detectors, the entire lower shaft is made of a nonmetal substance

kHz or Kilohertz: 1000 cycles per second. See also Frequency

LCD or Liquid Crystal Display: Used on a metal detector as a graphic visual indicator same as a meter/needle indicator

LED or Light Emitting Diode: A semiconductor which produces an illuminated visual response

Loop: See Search coil

Matrix: Refers to the total volume of ground penetrated by the transmitted electromagnetic field, which may contain varying amounts and combinations of minerals, metals, salts and moisture.

Metal: Metallic substances such as iron, foil, nickel, aluminum, gold, brass, lead, copper, silver, etc.

Metal Detectorist: A person operating a metal detector in the field. This name is preferred by many over Treasure Hunter.

Meter: A detector component that provides visual information to aid in target identification. Meters feature either an LCD or needle indicator which may display intensity of signal, target depth, target identification, type of metal, or battery condition.

Mineral-Free Discriminator: Any metal detector that can reject or ignore trash metals while simultaneously balancing ground mineralization

Mineralized Ground : Any soil that contains conductive or nonconductive components.

Mode: A condition of operation, selected by the operator, for specific desired function(s).

Motion Discriminator: A detector type that requires searchcoil motion to activate its simultaneous ground balance and discriminate functions. See also Mineral-Free Discriminator and VLF/TR.

Narrow Response: A target that produces an audio response so short that pinpointing is almost not needed.

Negative Ground: Soil that contains non-conductive minerals which have a negative or nulling effect on an air-tuned threshold.

Neutral Ground: Soil that has no nonconductive or conductive mineral properties. Lacks mineralization.

Ni-Cad or Nickel-Cadmium: A rechargeable type of battery cell.

Non-Ferrous: Not of iron. Metals of the precious class (i.e., gold, silver, copper, etc.)

No-Motion: Refers to any mode of operation that does not require searchcoil motion to trigger target response. Also called non-motion.

Notch Accept: Operation whereby all target responses are “tuned-out” except those the instrument is adjusted to accept in the notch “window.”

Notch Discrimination : Filtering circuitry which allows a “window” of desirable targets to be accepted within the entire rejection range of unaccepted targets, i.e., rejecting nails, foil and pulltabs while accepting nickels and gold rings of the same conductivity. This circuitry can also be adjusted to reject all metal targets while accepting only a specific conductivity range.

Notch Level: A control used to select the target level or target conductivity which the notch filter will act upon.

Notch Reject: Operation whereby all targets within the notch width at chosen notch level will be “tuned-out.”

Notch Width: A finite discrimination range of target conductivities (“window”) at the chosen notch level.

Null: The zone just below audible threshold in metal detector tuning. This also refers to the momentary drop or quiet response of threshold sound as the searchcoil passes over a discriminated or rejected target.

Overlap: The amount of searchcoil swing advance not greater than the searchcoil’s physical diameter.

Overshoot: A common false signal heard as the searchcoil passes over a rejected target when using a no-motion All Metal mode in conjunction with automatic retuning. Excessive tuning restoration pushes the audio above threshold level creating a positive response at the edges of target detection periphery.

Phase Response: The length of time between eddy current generation sustained on a metal’s surface and the resultant secondary electromagnetic field effect on the searchcoil’s receive winding. Related to target conductivity.

Pinpointing : Finding the exact target location with respect to a searchcoil’s designated center. Accomplished by interpreting the centers of audio response width in perpendicular directions or scans. See also Detuning.

Positive Ground: Soil which contains conductive minerals or moist salts which have a positive or upward effect on an air-tuned threshold.

PI or Pulse Induction : A mode of operation where the transmitter circuit pulses an electrical current into the ground be fore it quickly shuts down. The eddy cur rents dissipate immediately from poor conductors such as wet salt sand and ground minerals. Metals hold eddy cur rents because they are better conductors. When the receiver circuit comes on, it picks up the returning signal from metal; the eddy currents in the ground minerals have already disappeared

 

Quick Response : A short time period between metal sensing and peak audio/ visual indicator indication usually associated with all frequency ranges of TR detectors

Rejection : An indication of target nonacceptance by a null in threshold or broken sound while operating in a discriminate mode.

RF-Two Box: A radio frequency detector having its own transmit and receive windings separate and in an orthogonal configuration. This detector is capable of deep large object detection while naturally ignoring small targets such as nails and individual coins.

Scan: Refers to A) the effective searchcoil detection width or B) searchcoil movement over the ground

Scrubbing: The searchcoil is pressed and held in contact with the ground while searching to maintain even audio threshold. With newer detectors, this technique is used to gain depth

Searchcoil: A circular (or other shaped) plastic housing containing single or multiple transmit and receive windings (wire coils)  in a specific configuration. A searchcoil emits and receives signals from the ground and metal targets. Also called loop , coil or head

Searchcoil Cable : An electrostatically shielded cable of conductors (wires) which convey signals to and from the searchcoil and control housing

Sensitivity : The capacity of a metal detector to perceive changes in conductivity within the detection pattern. Generally, the more sensitivity a detector can smoothly provide, the more depth it will achieve in sensing targets

Signal: An audio response or visual indication alerting the operator that a target has been detected.

Signal Width : The total distance of ground an audio signal is sustained during search- coil travel or scan

Silent Search : Refers to detectors capable of producing a target signal while operating below the threshold audio. Also called silent operation

Scuff Cover: A protective cover for the searchcoil bottom. Also called coil cover or skid plate

Slow Motion : A description of searchcoil speed required to operate the motion discriminate mode.

Stability : The ability of a metal detector to maintain manually adjusted tuning thresh- old under the effects of outside interference. See also Drift

Surface Area : Refers to the area of a target closest to the searchcoil where eddy current generation can take place

Surface Mount:  The art of mounting electronic components on the surface of a printed circuit board rather than using the “through board” method. This allows more technology in a much smaller space and with much higher tolerances

Sweep  motion employed in moving the searchcoil across the ground

Target: Refers to any object that causes an audio or visual response in a detector

Target Masking: When large sizes or high concentrations of trash metals drive the threshold into the null zone suppressing weaker, positive responses from deeper or smaller targets

Target Response: See Signal

Ten-Turn: A control which can be manually rotated ten times to cover the full electrical range of the function. Usually associated with tuning or ground balance function.

Test Garden : A mapped plot of buried targets at various depths to aid in learning characteristic target responses and in comparing metal detector performances under a given ground mineral content Also called test plot or test bed

TH’er,TH’ing : Universal word contractions for treasure hunter and treasure hunting. Also known as   Metal Detectorist

Threshold: Continuous tone that establishes a reference point for tuning the detector to ground balance it. The threshold tone also establishes the minimum sound level for deep targets in the discriminate mode

Tone ID: Circuitry producing different audio tones for each target’s conductivity range, i.e., low tone for nickel, high tone for coins

TR or Transmitter-Receiver:   Term describing method of operation of early detectors. Some manufacturers still produce this type of detector. Electromagnetic field distortion caused by mineralized ground interferes with depth penetration as this type of detector does not ground compensate. It does balance conductive salt water effects so, it is primarily used in salt water and on low mineral salt water beaches or low mineral inland locations

Visual ID: A feature in which a visual indication is produced to help identify the target.

Visual Indicator: A meter, LCD  LED that signals a target’s presence

VLF or Very Low Frequency See Frequency.

VLF/DISC: Term associated with detectors capable of mineral-free operation in both the Discriminate and All Metal modes

VLF/TR  A class of detector that can operate in both the All Metal, Ground Balance mode and the No-Motion Discriminate, Non-Ground Balance mode

Wide Response: A target that produces an audio signal over an area wider than the searchcoil diameter

Wide Scan: A coplanar searchcoil with two “D” shaped transmit and receive windings positioned back to back and overlapping. This searchcoil type is capable of detecting a target across at least its full diameter. Also called Double-D or 2-D

Zero Discrimination: Used to describe detectors    whose discrimination control allows the acceptance of all metals at zero setting

How Search Coils Work, and what types they are.

SEARCHCOIL BASICSThe searchcoil is a vital part of your metal detector. It is the flat, typically circular disk, which generates a magnetic field and senses metallic targets in the surrounding environment. It is located at the end of the stem and is connected to the control housing via a cable normally wound around the stem. The size and depth of the magnetic field is determined by the shape and size of the searchcoil. Understanding the purposes behind the various sizes and shapes of searchcoils will empower you with the ability to choose the best searchcoil for each application.

HOW SEARCHCOILS WORK: Search coils generally consist of two internal sets of coiled wires, a Transmit Coil (TX) and a Receive Coil (RX).Mono coils can be different in that one coil acts as both the TX and the RX. When the detector is turned on, the TX coil generates a magnetic field in the surrounding space.

When a metallic object is within this generated magnetic field, it will create a distortion in the magnetic field. The RX coil will sense this distortion and send a signal to the control housing.A searchcoils detection pattern is determined by the combination of the TX’s generated field pattern and the RX’s sensing field pattern.SEARCHCOIL DEPTH The detection depth of a searchcoil, as a rule-of-thumb, will be approximately equal to its diameter, for a coin-sized object. However, as a searchcoil’s size increases and its field pattern becomes larger, the field pattern becomes less concentrated and begins to miss small objects. For a coin-sized object, this effect becomes noticeable when using searchcoils larger than about 15” in diameter. Since the field generated by a large searchcoil is larger, deeper and less concentrated than a small searchcoil, it is the best choice when hunting for targets that are usually large and deeply buried, such as caches or relics.

SIZES & SHAPES

There are a variety of searchcoil sizes and shapes. The correct one to use depends on the environment it will be used in as well as the targets being sought. A change in any one of these variables may require a different searchcoil.Generally, searchcoils are circular or elliptical in shape. An elliptical searchcoil is more maneuverable than a circular searchcoil and its narrow width actually provides greater coverage than a circular coil due to its elongated length. However, a circular searchcoil has slightly more detection depth and sensitivity in non-mineralized soil, so it is still the most commonly used shape. Searchcoils also come in a 2-box configuration, which are used for detecting deeply buried targets.Searchcoils range in diameter from a few inches to several feet. Those less than 6” in diameter are generally considered small, 6-11” in diameter are considered medium and over 11” are considered large. As noted earlier, there is a direct relationship between the size of a magnetic field and the size of a coil. The bigger the coil, the larger the magnetic field. Therefore, larger searchcoils generally detect deeper than smaller searchcoils.

Small SearchcoilsBecause the magnetic field of a small searchcoil is concentrated within a small volume, it is the best choice for hunting in areas with a lot of metal debris. This allows you to maneuver through and around trash to locate good targets, especially when searching in tight places where large searchcoils cannot go. In addition, because of their concentrated detection field, small searchcoils are the best for detecting very small objects. However, a small searchcoil provides less coverage per sweep; more scans will be required to cover a search area.

Medium SearchcoilsFor general-purpose hunting, which typically includes coins and coin-sized targets, a medium sized searchcoil (8 – 9”) is the best choice. Because a medium sized searchcoil provides the best combination of magnetic field concentration, detection depth and capability to detect the greatest range of target sizes within the detection area, it is standard with most detectors. In addition, it’s lightweight and easy to maneuver.

Large SearchcoilsLarge searchcoils generate wider and deeper magnetic fields than small coils and consequently provide greater depth and coverage. This means that scanning a search area requires fewer sweeps with a large searchcoil than with a smaller coil. This larger scan area, however, can become a problem in trashy areas where the searchcoil is metal detecting several targets at once.

CONFIGURATIONS

In addition to searchcoil sizes and shapes, there are also a variety of searchcoil configurations available, with each proving to be the best choice depending on hunting applications and ground conditions. The configuration of a searchcoil refers to the arrangement of the TX and RX coils within the searchcoil shell. There are basically five configurations: Concentric, Mono, Imaging, Double-D and 2-box.
Concentric Searchcoil

ConcentricThe concentric configuration consists of a TX coil and RX coil which are usually circular and arranged as shown at left. The advantage of this configuration is that both the TX and RX coils are wound as large as possible within a given searchcoil diameter. This provides the largest possible detection field and greatest detection depth, making the concentric coil potentially the most sensitive configuration available.In addition, concentric coils also provide the most symmetrical detection field, allowing ease in pinpointing and consistency in target identification. For these reasons, they are the most commonly used searchcoil and will provide the best overall performance in most environments.Unfortunately, this configuration is the most susceptible to interference from ground minerals, which results in substantial loss of performance when used over heavily mineralized ground.

Mono

A mono-coil is available only on Pulse Induction detectors and is a variation of the concentric configuration. The mono-coil can be manufactured with the TX and RX coils located together or as a single coil acting as both TX and RX.The detection and performance characteristics of the mono are essentially the same as the concentric in that it provides the maximum possible sensitivity, but suffers some performance in mineralized ground.

ImagingAn Imaging searchcoil is an enhanced version of the concentric configuration that features an additional RX coil. This extra coil provides the detector with additional target information necessary for true target-depth perception and true target-sizing capabilities.With this additional sizing information, the detector can more fully characterize a target and for the first time distinguish between trash and good targets of the same conductivity (e.g. a quarter vs. a soda can). Only Garrett’s GTI series offers this technology; no other detector in the world has this capability.

DD Searchcoil

Double-D

The Double-D configuration is designed to significantly reduce ground interference and, thereby, recover the performance lost by a concentric coil over mineralized soil. With the Double-D, it is the arrangement of the TX and RX coils that produce a canceling effect of ground signals.This configuration is called DD because both TX and RX coils are in the shape of a “D”. The positive detection field of the DD runs beneath the overlapping center section from front-to-back. The remaining portion of the coil actually produces negative (i.e. canceling) detection fields. It is this canceling field that allows the DD coil to maintain performance over mineralized ground.Because of its small positive detection field, the DD is inherently less sensitive than a concentric searchcoil of the same size, over non-mineralized ground. The Double-D will, however, significantly outperform the concentric coil over mineralized ground. For this reason, it is highly recommended when hunting over mineralized ground commonly found when prospecting and relic hunting.

2-Box In a 2-box configuration, the TX and RX coils are physically several feet apart. This configuration provides a lightweight, manageable means of achieving the performance of a 3′ to 4′ diameter searchcoil. Because of its large size, and consequently large detection field, the 2-box is the best choice for detecting large, deeply buried objects such as relics and caches. Also, because of its large detection field, it ignores objects smaller than about 3″ in diameter. This characteristic is advantageous when hunting in areas heavily littered with small trash objects.There’s also an enhanced version of the 2-box, only available from Garrett. It is the Treasure Hound with pinpointing. This version incorporates an additional pinpointing coil for precise target location.

Metal Detector Terms Part I – metal detecting terms

Metal Detecting Terms

DetectionNet:  best metal detecting site

Metal Detector Air Test: A test performed by moving various sized metal samples beneath the metal detector searchcoil to check the detector’s features and target response. This test is not an accurate indicator of ground depth penetration capability.

Alkaline: A type of battery able to sustain longer periods of current drain with greater storage life when compared to the standard carbon-zinc type.

All Metal: Any operating mode or control setting which allows total acceptance of any type of metal targets. Usually associated with the Ground Balance mode.

Audio ID: See Tone ID.

Audio Response: See Target Response.

Auto Tune: Circuitry which continuously retunes the detector’s threshold to the initial manually tuned audio level. The retuning rate following target rejection or drift can be preset or variable.

Back Reading: A false signal, when operating in the discriminate mode, caused by a rejected target coming within one inch of or contacting the searchcoil bottom.

Bench Test: An air test to determine at what approximate discriminate settings various metal samples are rejected or accepted. The test is conducted in a non- metallic area.

Black Sand: One of the most extreme components of nonconductive, negative ground minerals. Also called magnetite (Fe304) or magnetic iron oxide.

Body Mount: A configuration whereby the control housing is separated from the control shaft and fastened to the operator’s body lessening arm fatigue and expanding usability for shallow water hunting. Also known as hip mount.

Cache: Any intentionally buried or secret hoard of valuables.

Carbon-Zinc: The most common standard dry cell battery type.

Coil: See Searchcoil.

Coin Depth Indicator: A visual indicator used in conjunction with calibrated circuitry to indicate depth of buried coins in inches or millimeters.

Concentric: A searchcoil configuration using one or more transmit and one receive windings having unequal diameters aligned on a common center; most recently arranged on the same plane and called coplanar concentric.

Conductive Salts: One of the major mineral types which make up the positive ground matrix. Wet, ocean-salt sand produces a positive rise or metallic type response on an air tuned threshold.

Conductivity: The measure of a metal target’s ability to allow eddy current generation on its surface.

Control Housing: A metal or plastic box which holds circuit boards, indicators, meter, controls and power supply.

Convertible/Combination: A metal detector configuration allowing versatility in operator handling, i.e., hand held to body mount.

Coplanar: Any searchcoil configuration in which transmit and receive windings occupy the same level or plane.

Crystal Controlled Oscillator: A transmit oscillator employing a crystal to maintain stable output frequency.

Depth Penetration: The greatest measure of metal detector’sability to transmit an electromagnetic field into the soil matrix and produce a target signal.

Detection Pattern: The densest or strongest region of the searchcoil’s electromagnetic field where detection occurs. Its shape is balloon and changes in size directly proportional to target surface area.

Detuning: Adjusting the audio threshold into the null or less sensitivity tuning zone. Also a method of narrowing a target signal width manually for precise pinpointing. This is accomplished by retuning to audio threshold over the target response area.

DISC: See Discrimination.

Discrimination: Adjustable circuitry which ignores or nulls audio responses from a specific conductivity range allowing positive responses to be heard from metals higher in conductivity above the discriminate control setting. Designed primarily to eliminate audio response from trash metals. See also Motion Discriminator.

Double Blip: A signal characteristic common to elongated ferrous targets such as nails or coins lying close to the surface detected in the All Metal no-motion mode.

Double D or 2 D: See Wide Scan.

Drift: A loss of threshold tuning stability caused by temperature change, battery condition, ground mineral content or detector design.

metal detector terms and vocabulary

DetectionNet : Internet’s best metal detecting site

Air Test: A test performed by moving various sized metal samples beneath the metal detector searchcoil to check the detector’s features and target response. This test is not an accurate indicator of ground depth penetration capability.

Alkaline: A type of battery able to sustain longer periods of current drain with greater storage life when compared to the standard carbon-zinc type.

All Metal: Any operating mode or control setting which allows total acceptance of any type of metal targets. Usually associated with the Ground Balance mode.

Audio ID: See Tone ID.

Audio Response: See Target Response.

Auto Tune: Circuitry which continuously retunes the detector’s threshold to the initial manually tuned audio level. The retuning rate following target rejection or drift can be preset or variable.

Back Reading: A false signal, when operating in the discriminate mode, caused by a rejected target coming within one inch of or contacting the searchcoil bottom.

Bench Test: An air test to determine at what approximate discriminate settings various metal samples are rejected or accepted. The test is conducted in a non- metallic area.

Black Sand: One of the most extreme components of nonconductive, negative ground minerals. Also called magnetite (Fe304) or magnetic iron oxide.

Body Mount: A configuration whereby the control housing is separated from the control shaft and fastened to the operator’s body lessening arm fatigue and expanding usability for shallow water hunting. Also known as hip mount.

Cache: Any intentionally buried or secret hoard of valuables.

Carbon-Zinc: The most common standard dry cell battery type.

Coil: See Searchcoil.

Coin Depth Indicator: A visual indicator used in conjunction with calibrated circuitry to indicate depth of buried coins in inches or millimeters.

Concentric: A searchcoil configuration using one or more transmit and one receive windings having unequal diameters aligned on a common center; most recently arranged on the same plane and called coplanar concentric.

Conductive Salts: One of the major mineral types which make up the positive ground matrix. Wet, ocean-salt sand produces a positive rise or metallic type response on an air tuned threshold.

Conductivity: The measure of a metal target’s ability to allow eddy current generation on its surface.

Control Housing: A metal or plastic box which holds circuit boards, indicators, meter, controls and power supply.

Convertible/Combination: A metal detector configuration allowing versatility in operator handling, i.e., hand held to body mount.

Coplanar: Any searchcoil configuration in which transmit and receive windings occupy the same level or plane.

Crystal Controlled Oscillator: A transmit oscillator employing a crystal to maintain stable output frequency.

Depth Penetration: The greatest measure of metal detector’sability to transmit an electromagnetic field into the soil matrix and produce a target signal.

Detection Pattern: The densest or strongest region of the searchcoil’s electromagnetic field where detection occurs. Its shape is balloon and changes in size directly proportional to target surface area.

Detuning: Adjusting the audio threshold into the null or less sensitivity tuning zone. Also a method of narrowing a target signal width manually for precise pinpointing. This is accomplished by retuning to audio threshold over the target response area.

DISC: See Discrimination.

Discrimination: Adjustable circuitry which ignores or nulls audio responses from a specific conductivity range allowing positive responses to be heard from metals higher in conductivity above the discriminate control setting. Designed primarily to eliminate audio response from trash metals. See also Motion Discriminator.

Double Blip: A signal characteristic common to elongated ferrous targets such as nails or coins lying close to the surface detected in the All Metal no-motion mode.

Double D or 2 D: See Wide Scan.

Drift: A loss of threshold tuning stability caused by temperature change, battery condition, ground mineral content or detector design.

Eddy Currents: Small circulating currents produced on the surface of metal by the transmitted electromagnetic field. These currents then produce a secondary electromagnetic field which is then detected by the search coil receiver windings resulting in inductive imbalance between the windings.

Electromagnetic Field: An invisible force extending from top and bottom of the searchcoil created by the flow of alternating oscillator frequency current around the transmit winding. See also Detection Pattern.

Electronic Pinpointing: An automated detuning feature which narrows signal response for the purpose of target pinpointing.

Elliptical Coil: A searchcoil with an ellipse shape. This coil can be either concentric or widescan type.

Faint Signal: A sound characteristic of targets that are sometimes deeply buried or very small in size.

False Signal: An erroneous signal created by over shoot, ground voids or highly mineralized hot rocks. See also Back-Reading.

Faraday-Shield: A metal foil wrapping of the searchcoil windings or metallically painted searchcoil housing interior for the purpose of eliminating electrostatic interference caused by wet vegetation.

Ferrous: Descriptive of any iron or iron bearing material.

Ferrous Oxide: An oxidized particle of iron which generally becomes nonconductive and makes up the natural negative ground mineral matrix. Hematite, which is also iron oxide (Fe203) will respond as positive or metallic. See also Black Sand.

Frequency: The number of complete alternating current cycles produced by the transmit oscillator per second. Measured in cycles per second. VLF Very Low Frequency = 3 to 30 kHz; LF Low Frequency = 30 to 300 kHz;MF Medium Frequency = 300 to 3000 kHz; HF High Frequency = 3 to 30 MHz.

Frequency Shift: A feature which suppresses the audio interference (cross-talk) between two detectors using identical transmit frequencies in close proximity.

Ground Balance: A state of operation using specialized circuitry to ignore the masking effect that iron ground minerals have over metal targets.

Ground Balance – Factory Preset: A feature which eliminates the manual ground balance control and its adjustment from the operator’s setup procedure. This adjustment is performed internally by the factory to optimize operation over an average range of nonconductive soils.

Ground Balance – Manual Adjusted: A feature requiring a manual control adjustment procedure to neutralize the effects of negative minerals in the search matrix.

Ground Balance – Self Adjusting: A feature which senses change in ground mineral content and continuously readjusts the ground balance while in operation. Sometimes called Ground Tracking or Automatic Ground Balance.

Ground Filter: Complex circuitry found in motion-type detectors which separates mineral signal from the metal signal allowing it to be further processed by the discrimination circuitry.

Hand Held: A metal detector configuration whereby the operator holds a shaft or handle which supports the searchcoil and control housing. Also called pole mount.

Head: See Searchcoil.

Hz or Hertz: Cycles per second. See also Frequency.

Hip Mount: See Body Mount.

Hot Rock: A rock which contains a higher concentration of nonconductive ground minerals than the surrounding matrix to which the detector is balanced. A metallic (positive) response will be heard in the motion and non-motion modes and a null or negative drop in threshold is heard in the all-metal, ground balance mode over these rocks.

Isolator: A nonmetal stem which attaches the searchcoil to the control shaft eliminating metallic interference in the detection pattern. On some detectors, the entire lower shaft is made of a nonmetal substance.

kHz or Kilohertz: 1000 cycles per second. See also Frequency.

LCD or Liquid Crystal Display: Used on a metal detector as a graphic visual indicator same as a meter/needle indicator.

LED or Light Emitting Diode: A semiconductor which produces an illuminated visual response.

Loop: See Searchcoil.

Matrix: Refers to the total volume of ground penetrated by the transmitted electromagnetic field, which may contain varying amounts and combinations of minerals, metals, salts and moisture.

Metal: Metallic substances such as iron, foil, nickel, aluminum, gold, brass, lead, copper, silver, etc.

Metal Detectorist: A person operating a metal detector in the field. This name is preferred by many over Treasure Hunter.

Meter: A detector component that provides visual information to aid in target identification. Meters feature either an LCD or needle indicator which may display intensity of signal, target depth, target identification, type of metal, or battery condition.

Mineral-Free Discriminator: Any metal detector that can reject or ignore trash metals while simultaneously balancing ground mineralization.

Mineralized Ground: Any soil that contains conductive or nonconductive components.

Mode: A condition of operation, selected by the operator, for specific desired function(s).

Motion Discriminator: A detector type that requires searchcoil motion to activate its simultaneous ground balance and discriminate functions. See also Mineral-Free Discriminator and VLF/TR.

Narrow Response: A target that produces an audio response so short that pinpointing is almost not needed.

Negative Ground: Soil that contains non-conductive minerals which have a negative or nulling effect on an air-tuned threshold.

Neutral Ground: Soil that has no nonconductive or conductive mineral properties. Lacks mineralization.

Ni-Cad or Nickel-Cadmium: A rechargeable type of battery cell.

Non-Ferrous: Not of iron. Metals of the precious class (i.e., gold, silver, copper, etc.)

No-Motion: Refers to any mode of operation that does not require searchcoil motion to trigger target response. Also called non-motion.

Notch Accept: Operation whereby all target responses are “tuned-out” except those the instrument is adjusted to accept in the notch “window.”

Notch Discrimination: Filtering circuitry which allows a “window” of desirable targets to be accepted within the entire rejection range of unaccepted targets, i.e., rejecting nails, foil and pulltabs while accepting nickels and gold rings of the same conductivity. This circuitry can also be adjusted to reject all metal targets while accepting only a specific conductivity range.

Notch Level: A control used to select the target level or target conductivity which the notch filter will act upon.

Notch Reject: Operation whereby all targets within the notch width at chosen notch level will be “tuned-out.”

Notch Width: A finite discrimination range of target conductivities (“window”) at the chosen notch level.

Null: The zone just below audible threshold in metal detector tuning. This also refers to the momentary drop or quiet response of threshold sound as the searchcoil passes over a discriminated or rejected target.

Overlap: The amount of searchcoil swing advance not greater than the searchcoil’s physical diameter.

Overshoot: A common false signal heard as the searchcoil passes over a rejected target when using a no-motion All Metal mode in conjunction with automatic retuning. Excessive tuning restoration pushes the audio above threshold level creating a positive response at the edges of target detection periphery.

Phase Response: The length of time between eddy current generation sustained on a metal’s surface and the resultant secondary electromagnetic field effect on the searchcoil’s receive winding. Related to target conductivity.

Pinpointing: Finding the exact target location with respect to a searchcoil’s designated center. Accomplished by interpreting the centers of audio response width in perpendicular directions or scans. See also Detuning.

Positive Ground: Soil which contains conductive minerals or moist salts which have a positive or upward effect on an air-tuned threshold.

PI or Pulse Induction: A mode of operation where the transmitter circuit pulses an electrical current into the ground be fore it quickly shuts down. The eddy cur rents dissipate immediately from poor conductors such as wet salt sand and ground minerals. Metals hold eddy cur rents because they are better conductors. When the receiver circuit comes on, it picks up the returning signal from metal; the eddy currents in the ground minerals have already disappeared.

Quick Response: A short time period between metal sensing and peak audio/ visual indicator indication usually associated with all frequency ranges of TR detectors.

Rejection: An indication of target nonacceptance by a null in threshold or broken sound while operating in a discriminate mode.

RF-Two Box: A radio frequency detector having its own transmit and receive windings separate and in an orthogonal configuration. This detector is capable of deep large object detection while naturally ignoring small targets such as nails and individual coins.

Scan: Refers to 1) the effective searchcoil detection width or 2) searchcoil movement over the ground.

Scrubbing: The searchcoil is pressed and held in contact with the ground while searching to maintain even audio threshold. With newer detectors, this technique is used to gain depth.

Searchcoil: A circular (or other shaped) plastic housing containing single or multiple transmit and receive windings (wire coils) in a specific configuration. A searchcoil emits and receives signals from the ground and metal targets. Also called loop, coil or head.

Searchcoil Cable: An electrostatically shielded cable of conductors (wires) which convey signals to and from the searchcoil and control housing.

Sensitivity: The capacity of a metal detector to perceive changes in conductivity within the detection pattern. Generally, the more sensitivity a detector can smoothly provide, the more depth it will achieve in sensing targets.

Signal: An audio response or visual indication alerting the operator that a target has been detected.

Signal Width: The total distance of ground an audio signal is sustained during search- coil travel or scan.

Silent Search: Refers to detectors capable of producing a target signal while operating below the threshold audio. Also called silent operation.

Scuff Cover: A protective cover for the searchcoil bottom. Also called coil cover or skid plate.

Slow Motion: A description of searchcoil speed required to operate the motion discriminate mode.

Stability: The ability of a metal detector to maintain manually adjusted tuning thresh- old under the effects of outside interference. See also Drift.

Surface Area: Refers to the area of a target closest to the searchcoil where eddy current generation can take place.

Surface Mount: The art of mounting electronic components on the surface of a printed circuit board rather than using the “through board” method. This allows more technology in a much smaller space and with much higher tolerances.

Sweep: The motion employed in moving the searchcoil across the ground.

Target: Refers to any object that causes an audio or visual response in a detector.

Target Masking: When large sizes or high concentrations of trash metals drive the threshold into the null zone suppressing weaker, positive responses from deeper or smaller targets.

Target Response: See Signal.

Ten-Turn: A control which can be manually rotated ten times to cover the full electrical range of the function. Usually associated with tuning or ground balance function.

Test Garden: A mapped plot of buried targets at various depths to aid in learning characteristic target responses and in comparing metal detector performances under a given ground mineral content. Also called test plot or test bed.

TH’er,TH’ing: Universal word contractions for treasure hunter and treasure hunting. Also known as Metal Detectorist.

Threshold: Continuous tone that establishes a reference point for tuning the detector to ground balance it. The threshold tone also establishes the minimum sound level for deep targets in the discriminate mode.

Tone ID: Circuitry producing different audio tones for each target’s conductivity range, i.e., low tone for nickel, high tone for coins.

TR or Transmitter-Receiver: Term describing method of operation of early detectors. Some manufacturers still produce this type of detector. Electromagnetic field distortion caused by mineralized ground interferes with depth penetration as this type of detector does not ground compensate. It does balance conductive salt water effects so, it is primarily used in salt water and on low mineral salt water beaches or low mineral inland locations.

Visual ID: A feature in which a visual indication is produced to help identify the target.

Visual Indicator: A meter, LCD or LED that signals a target’s presence.

VLF or Very Low Frequency: See Frequency.

VLF/DISC: Term associated with detectors capable of mineral-free operation in both the Discriminate and All Metal modes.

VLF/TR: A class of detector that can operate in both the All Metal, Ground Balance mode and the No-Motion Discriminate, Non-Ground Balance mode.

Wide Response: A target that produces an audio signal over an area wider than the searchcoil diameter.

Wide Scan: A coplanar searchcoil with two “D” shaped transmit and receive windings positioned back to back and overlapping. This searchcoil type is capable of detecting a target across at least its full diameter. Also called Double-D or 2-D.

Zero Discrimination: Used to describe detectorswhose discrimination control allows the acceptance of all metals at zero setting.

Tesoro Cibola Metal Detector Instruction Manual

Tesoro CIBOLA Metal Detector OPERATOR INSTRUCTION MANUAL

 


 

CONGRATULATIONS!

Your new Tesoro Cibola metal detector is part of a new series of detectors designed to provide you with many happy hours of enjoyment in the most rewarding hobby I can think of—treasure hunting. Ahead of you lie fascinating and exciting experiences as you step into the past—uncovering artifacts lost by past generations, or as you take pleasure in the great outdoors with family and friends searching for precious metals. I wish we could share these experiences with you, and all of us at Tesoro wish you the best of success.

Your Tesoro detector is capable of meeting your needs in a wide range of treasure hunting situations. As with any other metal detector, familiarity with this instrument is probably the limiting factor in determining how successful you can be. I recommend that you read this manual and fully understand how to operate this detector before attempting to use it in the field. As you become more familiar with your detector through practice, your rate of success will increase dramatically.

The Cibola is a precision electronic instrument that will last for years if properly cared for. Treat it right and it won’t let you down.

 

 

 


GETTING STARTED – UNPACKING THE BOX

Your Cibola was shipped with these parts:

1 Upper Pole Assembly

Fully assembled, including upper pole stem with handle grip, padded arm bracket and control housing.

1 Middle Pole Assembly With Pole Lock

1 ABS Lower Pole Assembly

Fully assembled, complete with two friction washers, mounting screw, and thumb nut.

1 9 x 8 Monolithic Searchcoil With 3’ Cable and Scuff Cover

1 9 Volt Alkaline Battery

1 Operator Instruction Manual

1 Tesoro Warranty Card

If any of these items are missing, contact the Tesoro Authorized Dealer where you purchased your detector immediately.

Assembling the Cibola is simple and requires no special tools. Just install the battery packs, mount the searchcoil on the lower pole assembly, connect the pole assemblies together, wrap the excess cable around the pole and plug the cable into the control housing. Finally, adjust the pole length and searchcoil angle and you’re ready!


INSTALLING THE BATTERY

Your Cibola is equipped with an automatic battery test circuit so that you can always be sure you are getting top performance. The battery should be checked after the detector has been on for about 10 minutes and then periodically when used for long durations.

To install or replace the battery, first make sure the SENSITIVITY control is set to POWER OFF—turned completely counterclockwise past the “click.” Remove the battery door from the back of the control housing. Do this by pressing your thumb firmly on the louvered square—at the bottom of the battery door—and sliding the battery door upward in the direction of the arrow.

Check the polarity on the battery and on the diagram inside the battery compartment. Make sure that they match and simply drop a fresh 9 volt alkaline battery into the compartment. Note: If the battery is not installed properly, damage may occur to your detector.

Replace the battery door by sliding it into place making sure the upper mount slots are in line and the lock tongue is snapped in place.


ASSEMBLING YOUR DETECTOR
    1. On the lower pole assembly, remove the mounting screw and thumb nut from the black nylon pole tip.
    2. Insert the pole tip between the mounting ears of the searchcoil and align the holes of the pole tip and washers with those of the mounting ears.
      Note: The pole tip should fit very snugly into the mounting ears.

 

    1. Insert the mounting screw through the holes in the mounting ears and pole tip—entering from the side opposite the cable connection.
    2. Install the thumb nut on the mounting screw and tighten by hand.
      Note: Do not overtighten the thumb nut. It should be snug but not too difficult to loosen up.
    3. On the middle pole assembly, depress the two spring buttons and slide the middle pole assembly into the upper pole assembly until the spring buttons click into the holes, thus locking the two assemblies into place. Tighten the pole lock to secure the two assemblies together.

 

    1. Slide the lower pole into the middle pole until the spring buttons click into the first set of adjustment holes. Turn pole lock to tighten the assemblies into place.
    2. Wrap the cable around the pole leaving enough slack near the searchcoil to permit searchcoil adjustment. Note: Do not allow the cable to flop loosely over the searchcoil. Since the detector is sensitive enough to “see” the tiny wires in the cable, a floppy cable can cause false signals as the searchcoil senses the moving wires.
    3. Plug the male cable end into the female connector on the control housing and tighten the cable thumb nut. You are finished!
      Note: You will want to adjust the pole length and the searchcoil angle to your preference.

 


ADJUSTING THE POLE & SEARCHCOIL

The pole length should be adjusted so that the detector does not become uncomfortable or tiring after long periods of use. The detector grip should rest in your hand with your arm relaxed, your elbow straight but not locked, with the pole extending out in front of you at the approximate angle shown in the photo.

You should be able to swing the detector back and forth in front of you—using relaxed shoulder movement—while keeping the searchcoil as close to the ground as possible. This swinging movement is often called a “sweep.”

The searchcoil should not touch the ground during your sweep. The pole length should be adjusted to allow this without having to lift the detector with your elbow or shoulder. The searchcoil should rest about one inch above the ground while you are standing erect. The angle of the searchcoil should allow the bottom to be parallel to the ground.

The pole length is adjusted by loosening the pole lock, then depressing the spring buttons and extending or shortening the pole until the spring buttons click into the set of holes that give you the most comfortable pole length.

To adjust the searchcoil angle, simply loosen the searchcoil thumb nut slightly and move the searchcoil into the desired position. Tighten the searchcoil thumb nut by hand so that the searchcoil will hold in place.

 


QUICKSTART – SELF-GUIDED TUTORIAL

The Quickstart is designed to teach you how to use your new Cibola. It provides a quick and easy means of learning your detector and the concepts behind all of the functions.

You will need the following items:

  1. Your fully assembled Cibola.
  2. An iron target (a small nail or screw will do), an iron washer, a nickel, a zinc penny (1982 or later), a quarter and a couple of different pull tabs.
  3. A nonmetal table top or counter.

Here’s what you will do:

  1. Perform Audio Battery Test.
  2. Adjust THRESHOLD.
  3. Adjust SENSITIVITY.
  4. Perform Air Test in DISC Mode.
  5. Perform Air Test in PINPOINT Mode.
  6. Super Tune Your Cibola.
  7. Adjust FREQ Switch.
Prepare for the Quickstart

Place your assembled Cibola on the nonmetal surface. Make sure that there are no metal objects near the coil and remove any jewelry from your hands and wrists.

Start with the controls like this:

  1. THRESHOLD, SENSITIVITY and DISCRIMINATE LEVEL knobs turned completely counterclockwise.
  2. FREQ switch in the center position.
Perform Audio Battery Test

Turn the SENSITIVITY knob from OFF to about 7 or 8. You will hear a series of quick beeps. If the battery is fully charged, you will hear 6 or 7 beeps. When you hear only 1 or 2 beeps, it will be time to replace your battery. This test is only performed when the detector is first turned on. If you would like to check the condition of your battery while hunting, turn your detector off and on again and listen to the beeps.

Adjust THRESHOLD

To adjust the threshold tone, push and hold the PINPOINT button and then turn the THRESHOLD knob clockwise until you hear a slight but steady tone. You will have to turn the knob to somewhere between the 10 o’clock and 3 o’clock position to get the best hum. Once you have set the THRESHOLD, release the PINPOINT button. This will put you back into the DISCRIMINATE Mode and you can continue with the Quickstart.

The purpose of the threshold tone is to give a reference to judge targets for pinpointing and to super tune the Cibola. (For more information on super tuning, see the “Super Tune Your Cibola” section on page 13.)

In the field, some targets may be small enough or deep enough that they will not be able to generate an audio signal by themselves. By monitoring a threshold tone, you already have an audio tone so changes are easier to hear. However, if the threshold is set too soft or too loud, small changes in the signal will be hard to hear. Take some time and find a threshold level that is right for you.

Adjust SENSITIVITY

The discriminate circuit uses a silent search mode, meaning that no sound will be heard until the coil goes over a target. The most common use of the detector is to hunt in the DISCRIMINATE MODE and push the PINPOINT button to pinpoint a target. This will give you the advantage of ignoring unwanted targets and not having to listen to the threshold hum until you are ready to pinpoint and dig a target.

The all metal circuit uses a single channel to detect various metals. The discriminate circuit uses two different channels, then amplifies and filters them. The detector will then compare the signals and determine whether or not to beep at the target. While there is a great advantage to ignoring unwanted targets, it can make the circuitry more susceptible to interference. A number of outside conditions such as power lines, highly mineralized soil, and wet salt sand can cause interference.

The SENSITIVITY knob is used to raise or lower the power to the operational amplifiers, which changes the gain. Gain is a measurement of how much a signal is amplified. The higher the gain the more depth and sensitivity to small objects a detector has. Unfortunately, any small interference that is amplified can cause the detector to become erratic. The SENSITIVITY control is used to find the best gain setting in any location without letting the detector become unstable.

The SENSITIVITY knob is numbered from MIN to 10 and then has an orange area called the Max Boost zone. For normal hunting, anywhere in the numbered zone will work very well. However, the Max Boost will allow you to increase the power to the operational amplifiers to the point of overload. This may cause your detector to become unstable and force you to turn the SENSITIVITY knob to a lower setting. An overload situation will not hurt your detector, but it will maximize the gain that is used by your detector. This can, in certain conditions such as low mineralization in the soil, cause your detector to penetrate deeper into the ground and become more sensitive to small targets.

Take some time to try waving targets in front of the coil with different sensitivity settings. Notice that the higher the sensitivity setting, the farther away from the coil that a target can be and still respond with an audio signal.

Perform Air Test in DISC Mode

As discussed before, the discriminate mode is used to filter unwanted targets from good targets. The principle behind this is pretty simple. The detector sends out a signal and then receives it back creating a small electronic field. As metal passes through the field that the detector generates, it causes a change in the received signal. The amount of change that each type of metal causes is fairly constant; therefore, we can tune our detectors to miss targets that we don’t want to find. The change is based on the type of conductivity that each target has. The general list of conductive targets is as follows: iron, foil, nickels, gold jewelry, pulltabs, screw tabs, pennies, and silver coins starting with dimes and working up to silver dollars. This list is only meant to be a guide. There is a point that some pulltabs, nickels, and gold jewelry overlap. Also, the depth of the target and its orientation in the ground can change the received signal. A coin that is flat to the coil will produce a better signal than a coin that is on edge. Take some time to try different combinations of depths and orientations of your targets and find out how your detector responds.

We are now ready to discriminate targets from each other. We will start with the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL at MIN. Please notice that the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL knob has words that correspond to the items that are discriminated out.

All four targets (the iron, nickel, pulltabs, and quarter) will respond with a good audio signal at the MIN setting. Next, we will turn the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL up to IRON. This should be high enough to knock out the iron target and still get a positive response on the nickel, pulltabs, and quarter. When you are done with the IRON level, turn the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL to around the 5¢ setting. This level is high enough to knock out the nickel. At this time, the iron target and the nickel should give no response, while most of the pulltabs and the quarter will give a solid response. Next, turn the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL knob just past the TAB marking. At this time, most or all of the pulltabs should not give any audio signal. Only the quarter should give a strong signal. Now, roll the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL all the way to MAX. Notice that the quarter is still responding. The discrimination will not go high enough to lose most of the silver coins.

This air test is designed to quickly show you how your discriminate mode works. Each machine may be a little different from all of the others, so you may want to take some time and try different targets to find responses of your machine. At a later date, you may want to build a test garden to test your detector in the field.

Perform Air Test in PINPOINT Mode

When you are hunting in the DISCRIMINATE Mode, the PINPOINT button will allow you to momentarily switch into the ALL METAL Mode. The PINPOINT button is springloaded and must be pressed and held to shift into the ALL METAL Mode.

At this time, you are in the Silent Search Discriminate Mode. Press the PINPOINT button, and you will immediately hear the threshold audio tone. This indicates that you are now in the ALL METAL Mode. Your Cibola has a VCO-style ALL METAL Mode. You will find that as targets get closer to the coil, the threshold tone will get louder and higher in pitch.

With the PINPOINT button pressed in, try waving your targets in front of the coil. Start from a distance of 10 to 12 inches away from the coil and slowly work your way closer to the coil. Then, try starting from 6 inches away from the left or right of your coil and work your way to the center of the coil. Notice the changes of the audio signal. Your strongest signal will always be closest to the center of the coil. Additional information can also be learned by the signal strength and pitch. A smaller or deeper target will give a less noticeable change in the threshold than a larger or shallower target will give. Take some time and try all of your argets at different depths to find out how your detector sounds.

Take some time to try different DISCRIMINATE levels and then check them with the PINPOINT Mode. You will notice some distinctly different tones. Practice and experience will give you large amounts of information that will help you decide whether or not to dig a target in the field.

Super Tune Your Cibola

The Cibola can be set up to get even better depth and sensitivity while operating in the DISCRIMINATE Mode. Super tuning is accomplished by working in the DISCRIMINATE Mode and turning the THRESHOLD knob to the highest setting.

Super tuning your Cibola will cause the threshold audio level to be set too high for accurate All Metal or Pinpointing operation.

To start, turn the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL knob to just above the IRON setting and turn the SENSITIVITY knob as high as it will go without causing the detector to chatter. Check a target or two and notice how far away you can get from the coil and still receive a repeatable audio signal. Now, turn up the THRESHOLD knob and recheck the targets. You should see an increase in the distance from the target to the coil. Push the PINPOINT button. Notice that the threshold tone is far too loud to accurately identify some of your targets.

Take some time to try different targets and settings in an air test to see how well your detector will work in the ground.

Adjust FREQ Switch

Your Cibola comes equipped with a frequency shift switch (FREQ1, FREQ2, and FREQ3). This switch is used to change the operating frequency of your detector. This ability will help you to work a larger number of areas. The most common use would be during a large hunt where another hunter has the same frequency machine as your detector. Two machines that are on the same frequency will start broadcasting to each other. This is called crosstalk. If you experience crosstalk in the middle of a hunt, just flip the FREQ switch to another setting. This is very easily done and can be done in the middle of a sweep. Changing the frequency can also help in some urban areas where there may be a high concentration of radio or cell phone traffic. If your detector is acting erratically after adjusting the SENSITIVITY, try shifting the FREQ switch and resetting the SENSITIVITY.

Changing the operating frequency will not change the audio frequency of the signal in the speaker. The audio frequency is controlled by a microprocessor and will not shift.

Conclusion

Congratulations, you have just finished the Quickstart for your new Cibola detector and in the process have learned quite a lot about your detector. But experience is the best teacher. I recommend that you get out and practice with your detector as much as possible. Any time spent using your detector will give you valuable experience.

 


OPERATING TECHNIQUES – FIELD USE
Pinpointing a Target

When pinpointing a target, the ALL METAL Mode can offer advantages over the DISCRIMINATE Mode, such as no false signals and no need to move the searchcoil to get a target response.

A good method for pinpointing in ALL METAL Mode is “X-ing” the target with the searchcoil. Remember that the target’s response sound is always greatest when the target is directly under the center of the searchcoil. To “X” a target, sweep the searchcoil over the target from side to side and then from front to back until you can identify the center of the X—the spot on the ground where the target response sound is the greatest.

Pinpointing a target in DISCRIMINATE Mode is probably best done by “X-ing” as well. Remember that the detector will beep just as the target passes under the center of the searchcoil. Slowing the sweep speed down will help you pick out the center of the X because the target response is reduced at very slow speeds making it easier to correlate the sound with the coil center.

Another easy method is to sweep the coil from side to side across the target in very short sweeps as you slowly move forward and backward across the target. Slow down the sweep rate and shorten the sweeps until you just barely get a response at one spot. The target will be directly below the coil center at this response time.

Another method of pinpointing in the DISCRIMINATE Mode is to quickly change to the ALL METAL Mode to check the target response. Remember that the ALL METAL Mode is not susceptible to the false signals of the DISCRIMINATE Mode and can sometimes give a clearer and more consistent response to difficult targets such as a dime buried next to a pulltab. By switching back and forth between modes and comparing the target response sound in all metal to the target response sound in discriminate, you can often better identify the likely location of the target.

Finally, raising the searchcoil during pinpointing can also help by narrowing the response to the target. Practice pinpointing often, and you will soon become more accurate and faster.

Recognizing False Signals in Discriminate Mode

When operating in the DISCRIMINATE Mode, some “false signals” may be caused by 1) heavy concentrations of trash metal objects, 2) very large trash metal objects, or 3) electrical interference. These signals are generally short, choppy sounds and sound different than “good signals” (good target response sounds).

At the end of your sweep, as you reverse the coil direction, the detector is most susceptible to trash-induced noise. There are two ways to tell whether these sounds are good deep signals or trash “noise.” The first is by repeatability. Trash-induced noises will not be regular as you sweep the coil over the suspected target several times, whereas a good target response will be repeatable. The second method is to switch to the ALL METAL Mode and check the target response sound. If the response is weak, it may well be a deep, good target. But if the response is very strong, it is probably trash. Note that a coin close to the surface can give a double beep sound, but it is regular and repeatable. Raising the coil an inch or two will restore the single beep on surface targets.

When searching in the DISCRIMINATE Mode, it is best not to use a higher DISCRIMINATE LEVEL setting than necessary. Nickels and most smaller rings are rejected when the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL is set to reject pulltabs on any metal detector that is a TR Discriminator like the Cibola. If you don’t dig any junk at all, you are surely passing up a lot of good finds as well. Set the DISCRIMINATE LEVEL only high enough to suit the conditions where you are searching. If there is any doubt whether a target is good or not, dig it.

Recovering a Target

If the target is shallow and the soil is soft, you may be able to “probe” and find the exact location of the target before you dig it. Since filling all holes after you recover the target is so important, digging a small precise hole is best. If the target is deep, you may need to dig a larger hole. As you dig, occasionally check the hole with your detector to see if you have moved the object, can probe it, or have already dug it. Be sure to fill all holes after you recover the target. Two methods are shown on the next two pages that work most everywhere. Be sure to protect your hobby by leaving the site cleaner than you found it and with all holes filled!

GENERAL INFORMATION – CARE AND USE
Basic Care

The Cibola is a sturdy instrument, but it is not designed to withstand abuse. In caring for your Cibola, there are several important “DO NOTs” to remember. DO NOT use it to pry rocks loose or to beat bushes out of the way. DO NOT drop the machine into water. DO NOT use it unprotected in the rain. DO NOT leave it exposed at night where dew could form on it. DO NOT store it in places that could get extremely hot (next to a woodstove or in an attic). DO NOT leave it in the trunk of a car or in the back of a hatchback-style car where high temperatures could build up. DO NOT store it with the battery installed as batteries may leak. DO NOT spray lubricants such as WD-40, or any types of cleaners, solvents, sealants or other chemicals into or onto the electronic parts, witches, or controls. And finally, DO NOT attempt to modify or repair the detector’s electronics as this will void your detector’s warranty.

THE WARRANTY DOES NOT COVER DAMAGE RESULTING FROM AN ACCIDENT, NEGLECT OR ABUSE.

Protecting Your Investment

Often detectorists are disappointed when their new detector slowly becomes less and less responsive and seems to have lost some of its original peak performance. You can help avoid this from happening to your detector by following these basic care and protection guidelines:

  • Operate your detector exactly as recommended in this Operator Instruction Manual.
  • Use only high-quality alkaline batteries of the correct voltage. Never substitute a different voltage. When using a Ni-Cad battery, always use a separate convertible pack with the proper voltage output for the detector’s design.
  • Remove the battery from the detector after each use. This will prevent damage to the detector if the battery leaks.
  • The searchcoil cable is hard-wired to the searchcoil and protected by a strain relief. Inspect the strain relief frequently to make sure it is firmly attached and intact.
  • Keep cables properly wound around the pole stems and protect them during use. Floppy, pinched, or cables that become snagged during use may short, causing erratic noises or unnecessary replacement of the searchcoil.
  • Sweep the searchcoil carefully, especially when using around rocks and building foundations. Avoid hitting the searchcoil against hard, solid objects and surfaces.
  • Keep your searchcoil slightly off of the ground during the sweep, especially when using in gravel or hard, rocky dirt.
  • Always use a properly designed protective scuff cover on the searchcoil. (See “Optional Accessories” in the next section.)
  • Remove and clean out scuff covers periodically to avoid buildup of mineralized dirt particles which will affect performance.
  • The searchcoil is waterproof and can be submerged in either fresh or salt water. After the searchcoil is used in salt water, rinse it and the lower stem assembly well with fresh water to prevent corrosion of the metal parts.
  • The searchcoil is waterproof but the electronics are not, so always prevent any moisture or water from entering the control housing and never allow the cable connectors to become submerged in water.
  • If working in or near water, or if there is a possibility of rain, use a protective weather resistant pouch or plastic bag to cover the control housing. Make sure it can “breathe” in order to ensure against condensation buildup inside.
  • After each use, clean the detector with a soft cloth to remove dust, moisture, or other contaminants.
  • When transporting the detector in a car during hot weather, store it on the floor of the passenger compartment if possible. Using a carry bag gives additional protection. In any case, never allow the detector to roll around unprotected in the trunk or back of a pickup truck.
  • Protect your detector from dust, moisture, and extreme temperatures during storage.
  • When shipping, use the original factory carton or similar heavy-duty container and provide a minimum one inch of padding around all parts.
  • Treat your detector as you would any sensitive electronic instrument. Though ruggedly constructed and designed to withstand the demands of normal treasure hunting, proper care is essential.

 


OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES

Tesoro metal detectors and genuine Tesoro accessories are sold only through independent Tesoro Authorized Dealers, who are almost always metal detectorists themselves. They can answer your questions about your Tesoro detector, what accessories may be helpful, and about metal detecting in general.

See your Tesoro Authorized Dealer for more information and prices on optional accessories.

Searchcoils

The 9 x 8 monolithic searchcoil provided with the Cibola is designed for best all-around performance. Optional searchcoils may add to your detector’s performance.

Smaller searchcoils give better “target separation”—that is, more distinct target response for metal objects buried closely together—which is very useful when hunting trashy sites. Very small searchcoils can deliver the best response and depth to small targets such as fine gold chains with some sacrifice in depth on larger objects. Larger searchcoils give a wider sweep, cover more ground, and provide greater depth especially on larger objects; however, they may not detect some very small objects such as half dimes and will have difficulty in very trashy areas.

Widescan searchcoils ignore ground mineralization better than concentric searchcoils and may offer improved performance in extreme ground conditions.

Selecting the right optional searchcoil depends on factors such as what you are searching for and search site conditions. No one searchcoil is better than all the rest. Several optional interchangeable searchcoils are available for the Cibola. They are all easy to mount and require no special tools. See the coils section for a list of these searchcoils with the Tesoro part # and description.

Optional scuff covers are also available for any Tesoro searchcoil.

Headphones

Most metal detectorists prefer to use headphones instead of the detector’s built-in speaker. Headphones help block out background noise (such as wind) and make it easier to hear faint signals. Headphones with a built-in volume control will allow you to adjust the sound volume to your preference.

 


SPECIFICATIONS
Operating Frequency 14.3 kHz, 14.5 kHz, 14.7 kHz
Searchcoil Type Monolithic (Carbon Fiber)
Searchcoil Size 9 x 8
Searchcoil Family Delta
Cable Length Approx. 3’
Audio Frequency Approx. 293 Hz or VCO
Audio Output 1½” speaker and headphone jack
Headphone Compatibility ¼” stereo plug
Weight (may vary slightly) 2.2 lbs.
Battery Requirement One 9 volt DC (alkaline)
Battery Life (typical) 10 to 20 hours
Optimum Temperature Range 30° to 100° F
Optimum Humidity 0 to 75% R.H.
Operating Modes Pinpoint All Metal
Silent Search Discriminate

 


Metal Detectorist’s Code of Ethics
  1. Always check federal, state, county and local laws before searching. It is your responsibility to “know the law.”
  2. Abide by all laws, ordinances or regulations that may govern your search and the area you will be in.
  3. Never trespass. Always obtain permission prior to entering private property, mineral claims, or underwater salvage leases.
  4. Do not damage, deface, destroy, or vandalize any property, including ghost towns and deserted structures, and never tamper with any equipment at the site.
  5. Never litter. Always pack out what you take in and remove all trash dug in your search.
  6. Fill all holes, regardless how remote the location. Never dig in a way that will damage, be damaging to, or kill any vegetation.
  7. Do not build fires, camp at or park in non-designated or restricted areas.
  8. Leave all gates and other accesses to land as found.
  9. Never contaminate wells, creeks, or any other water supplies.
  10. Be courteous, considerate, and thoughtful at all times.
  11. Report the discovery of any items of historic significance to the local historical society or proper authorities.
  12. Uphold all finders, search and salvage agreements.
  13. Promote responsible historical research and artifact recovery and the sharing of knowledge with others.

WARRANTY SERVICE

Your Tesoro metal detector is covered by a Limited Lifetime Warranty, the terms of which are listed below. If your metal detector should require service, you may return it to the Tesoro factory at the address below.

LIMITED LIFETIME WARRANTY

This warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may have other rights which vary from state to state.

This instrument is warranted to be free of defects in material and workmanship as long as it is owned by the original consumer purchaser. This warranty is not transferable and is valid only if the warranty registration card has been completed and mailed within 10 days of purchase.

TESORO will, at its option, repair or replace any instrument covered by this warranty, without charge, except for transportation charges, at its factory in Prescott, Arizona.

This warranty excludes batteries, damage caused by leaky batteries, cable breakage due to flexing on body mount units, and wear of the searchcoil housing. Also excluded are instruments which have been abused, altered, or repaired by an unauthorized party.

Under the copyright laws this documentation may not be copied, photocopied, reproduced, translated or reduced to any electronic or machine-readable form, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of Tesoro Electronics Incorporated, except in the manner described in this documentation.
© 2001 Tesoro Electronics Incorporated. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States.

 

Metal Detector Terms Part II

Eddy Currents : Small circulating currents produced on the surface of metal by the transmitted electromagnetic field. These currents then produce a secondary electromagnetic field which is then detected by the search coil receiver windings resulting in inductive imbalance between the windings

Electromagnetic Field : An invisible force extending from top and bottom of the searchcoil created by the flow of alternating oscillator frequency current around the transmit winding. See also Detection Pattern.
DetectionNet Metal Detectors

Electronic Pinpointing: An automated detuning feature which narrows signal response for the purpose of target pinpointing.

Elliptical Coil: A searchcoil with an ellipse shape. This coil can be either concentric or widescan type.

Faint Signal: A sound characteristic of targets that are sometimes deeply buried or very small in size.

False Signal: An erroneous signal created by over shoot, ground voids or highly mineralized hot rocks. See also Back-Reading.

Faraday-Shield: A metal foil wrapping of the searchcoil windings or metallically painted searchcoil housing interior for the purpose of eliminating electrostatic interference caused by wet vegetation.

Ferrous: Descriptive of any iron or iron bearing material.

Ferrous Oxide: An oxidized particle of iron which generally becomes nonconductive and makes up the natural negative ground mineral matrix. Hematite, which is also iron oxide (Fe203) will respond as positive or metallic. See also Black Sand.

Frequency: The number of complete alternating current cycles produced by the transmit oscillator per second. Measured in cycles per second. VLF Very Low Frequency = 3 to 30 kHz; LF Low Frequency = 30 to 300 kHz;MF Medium Frequency = 300 to 3000 kHz; HF High Frequency = 3 to 30 MHz.

Frequency Shift: A feature which suppresses the audio interference (cross-talk) between two detectors using identical transmit frequencies in close proximity.

Ground Balance: A state of operation using specialized circuitry to ignore the masking effect that iron ground minerals have over metal targets.

Ground Balance – Factory Preset: A feature which eliminates the manual ground balance control and its adjustment from the operator’s setup procedure. This adjustment is performed internally by the factory to optimize operation over an average range of nonconductive soils.

Ground Balance – Manual Adjusted: A feature requiring a manual control adjustment procedure to neutralize the effects of negative minerals in the search matrix.

Ground Balance – Self Adjusting: A feature which senses change in ground mineral content and continuously readjusts the ground balance while in operation. Sometimes called Ground Tracking or Automatic Ground Balance.

Ground Filter: Complex circuitry found in motion-type detectors which separates mineral signal from the metal signal allowing it to be further processed by the discrimination circuitry.

Hand Held: A metal detector configuration whereby the operator holds a shaft or handle which supports the searchcoil and control housing. Also called pole mount.

Head: See Searchcoil.

Hz or Hertz: Cycles per second. See also Frequency.

Hip Mount: See Body Mount.

Hot Rock: A rock which contains a higher concentration of nonconductive ground minerals than the surrounding matrix to which the detector is balanced. A metallic (positive) response will be heard in the motion and non-motion modes and a null or negative drop in threshold is heard in the all-metal, ground balance mode over these rocks.

Isolator: A nonmetal stem which attaches the searchcoil to the control shaft eliminating metallic interference in the detection pattern. On some detectors, the entire lower shaft is made of a nonmetal substance.

kHz or Kilohertz: 1000 cycles per second. See also Frequency.

LCD or Liquid Crystal Display: Used on a metal detector as a graphic visual indicator same as a meter/needle indicator.

LED or Light Emitting Diode: A semiconductor which produces an illuminated visual response.

Loop: See Searchcoils

Matrix: Refers to the total volume of ground penetrated by the transmitted electromagnetic field, which may contain varying amounts and combinations of minerals, metals, salts and moisture.

Metal: Metallic substances such as iron, foil, nickel, aluminum, gold, brass, lead, copper, silver, etc.

Metal Detectorist: A person operating a metal detector in the field. This name is preferred by many over Treasure Hunter.

Meter: A detector component that provides visual information to aid in target identification. Meters feature either an LCD or needle indicator which may display intensity of signal, target depth, target identification, type of metal, or battery condition.

Mineral-Free Discriminator: Any metal detector that can reject or ignore trash metals while simultaneously balancing ground mineralization.

Mineralized Ground: Any soil that contains conductive or nonconductive components.

Mode: A condition of operation, selected by the operator, for specific desired function(s)

Motion Discriminator: A detector type that requires searchcoil motion to activate its simultaneous ground balance and discriminate functions. See also Mineral-Free Discriminator and VLF/TR.

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Metal Detectors used for Security and Treasure Hunting

Metal Detector for Treasure or Security

You can also use garrett metal detectors to protect your merchandise. If you’re a retailer, and you sell small, valuable, easy to steal items such as jewelry, video games, and electronics, you can use a metal detector to keep your patrons honest. Using a security tag, you can have the detector programmed to stop anyone whose parcels contain an item of yours that is connected to the tag. This is a great way to keep shrinkage (costs of loss due to theft or faulty merchandise) down, which in turn keeps prices down and customers happy.

Garrett metal detectors come in many different forms and different levels of sophistication. The most popular one is Garrett Ace 250 Metal Detector They can be used by hobbyists to find treasures on local beaches, or they can be used by airports to find potential threats to security. They can also be used to find stolen merchandise before it makes it out of your store. No matter how you use your metal detector, it can really help you stay safe, secure, and solvent.   Category: Business Products & Services

Metal Detector Terms Part III

DetectionNet Metal Detectors

Narrow Response : A target that produces an audio response so short that pinpointing is almost not needed

Negative Ground: Soil that contains non-conductive minerals which have a negative or nulling effect on an air-tuned threshold.

Neutral Ground : Soil that has no nonconductive or conductive mineral properties. Lacks mineralization.

Ni-Cad: A rechargeable type of battery cell.

Non-Ferrous: Not of iron. Metals of the precious class (i.e., gold, silver, copper, etc.)

No-Motion: Refers to any mode of operation that does not require searchcoil motion to trigger target response. Also called non-motion.

Notch Accept: Operation whereby all target responses are “tuned-out” except those the instrument is adjusted to accept in the notch “window.”

Notch Discrimination: Filtering circuitry which allows a “window” of desirable targets to be accepted within the entire rejection range of unaccepted targets, i.e., rejecting nails, foil and pulltabs while accepting nickels and gold rings of the same conductivity. This circuitry can also be adjusted to reject all metal targets while accepting only a specific conductivity range.

Notch Level: A control used to select the target level or target conductivity which the notch filter will act upon.

Notch Reject: Operation whereby all targets within the notch width at chosen notch level will be “tuned-out.”

Notch Width: A finite discrimination range of target conductivities (“window”) at the chosen notch level.

Null: The zone just below audible threshold in metal detector tuning. This also refers to the momentary drop or quiet response of threshold sound as the searchcoil passes over a discriminated or rejected target.

Overlap: The amount of searchcoil swing advance not greater than the searchcoil’s physical diameter.

Overshoot: A common false signal heard as the searchcoil passes over a rejected target when using a no-motion All Metal mode in conjunction with automatic retuning. Excessive tuning restoration pushes the audio above threshold level creating a positive response at the edges of target detection periphery.

Phase Response: The length of time between eddy current generation sustained on a metal’s surface and the resultant secondary electromagnetic field effect on the searchcoil’s receive winding. Related to target conductivity.

Pinpointing: Finding the exact target location with respect to a searchcoil’s designated center. Accomplished by interpreting the centers of audio response width in perpendicular directions or scans. See also Detuning.

Positive Ground: Soil which contains conductive minerals or moist salts which have a positive or upward effect on an air-tuned threshold.

PI or Pulse Induction: A mode of operation where the transmitter circuit pulses an electrical current into the ground be fore it quickly shuts down. The eddy cur rents dissipate immediately from poor conductors such as wet salt sand and ground minerals. Metals hold eddy cur rents because they are better conductors. When the receiver circuit comes on, it picks up the returning signal from metal; the eddy currents in the ground minerals have already disappeared.

Quick Response: A short time period between metal sensing and peak audio/ visual indicator indication usually associated with all frequency ranges of TR detectors.

Rejection: An indication of target nonacceptance by a null in threshold or broken sound while operating in a discriminate mode.

RF-Two Box: A radio frequency detector having its own transmit and receive windings separate and in an orthogonal configuration. This detector is capable of deep large object detection while naturally ignoring small targets such as nails and individual coins.

Scan: Refers to 1) the effective searchcoil detection width or 2) searchcoil movement over the ground.

Scrubbing: The searchcoil is pressed and held in contact with the ground while searching to maintain even audio threshold. With newer detectors, this technique is used to gain depth.

Searchcoil: A circular (or other shaped) plastic housing containing single or multiple transmit and receive windings (wire coils) in a specific configuration. A searchcoil emits and receives signals from the ground and metal targets. Also called loop, coil or head.

Searchcoil Cable: An electrostatically shielded cable of conductors (wires) which convey signals to and from the searchcoil and control housing.

Sensitivity: The capacity of a metal detector to perceive changes in conductivity within the detection pattern. Generally, the more sensitivity a detector can smoothly provide, the more depth it will achieve in sensing targets.

Signal: An audio response or visual indication alerting the operator that a target has been detected.

Signal Width: The total distance of ground an audio signal is sustained during search- coil travel or scan.

Silent Search: Refers to detectors capable of producing a target signal while operating below the threshold audio. Also called silent operation.

Scuff Cover: A protective cover for the searchcoil bottom. Also called coil cover or skid plate.

Slow Motion: A description of searchcoil speed required to operate the motion discriminate mode.

Stability: The ability of a metal detector to maintain manually adjusted tuning thresh- old under the effects of outside interference. See also Drift.

Surface Area: Refers to the area of a target closest to the searchcoil where eddy current generation can take place.

Surface Mount: The art of mounting electronic components on the surface of a printed circuit board rather than using the “through board” method. This allows more technology in a much smaller space and with much higher tolerances.

Sweep: The motion employed in moving the searchcoil across the ground.

Target: Refers to any object that causes an audio or visual response in a detector.

Target Masking: When large sizes or high concentrations of trash metals drive the threshold into the null zone suppressing weaker, positive responses from deeper or smaller targets.

Target Response: See Signal.

Ten-Turn: A control which can be manually rotated ten times to cover the full electrical range of the function. Usually associated with tuning or ground balance function.

Test Garden: A mapped plot of buried targets at various depths to aid in learning characteristic target responses and in comparing metal detector performances under a given ground mineral content. Also called test plot or test bed.

TH’er,TH’ing: Universal word contractions for treasure hunter and treasure hunting. Also known as Metal Detectorist.

Threshold: Continuous tone that establishes a reference point for tuning the detector to ground balance it. The threshold tone also establishes the minimum sound level for deep targets in the discriminate mode.

Tone ID: Circuitry producing different audio tones for each target’s conductivity range, i.e., low tone for nickel, high tone for coins.

TR or Transmitter-Receiver: Term describing method of operation of early detectors. Some manufacturers still produce this type of detector. Electromagnetic field distortion caused by mineralized ground interferes with depth penetration as this type of detector does not ground compensate. It does balance conductive salt water effects so, it is primarily used in salt water and on low mineral salt water beaches or low mineral inland locations.

Visual ID: A feature in which a visual indication is produced to help identify the target.

Visual Indicator: A meter, LCD or LED that signals a target’s presence.

VLF or Very Low Frequency: See Frequency.

VLF/DISC: Term associated with detectors capable of mineral-free operation in both the Discriminate and All Metal modes.

VLF/TR: A class of detector that can operate in both the All Metal, Ground Balance mode and the No-Motion Discriminate, Non Ground Balance mode.

Wide Response: A target that produces an audio signal over an area wider than the search coil diameter.

Wide Scan: A coplanar searchcoil with two “D” shaped transmit and receive windings positioned back to back and overlapping. This searchcoil type is capable of detecting a target across at least its full diameter. Also called Double-D or 2-D

Zero Discrimination: Used to describe detectors       whose discrimination control allows the acceptance of all metals at zero setting.